Presentation Skills

Presentation Skills

TTI WORKBOOK CONTENT

 

A.Career Advancement System

            1.         Personal Assessment

                        a.         presentation and image profile

                        b.         communication skills inventory

                        c.         learning styles analysis

                        d.         career assessment

            2. Goal Planning

                        a.         a purpose statement

                        b.         clarification of career and life goals

                        c.         economic attitudes survey

                        d.         creation of goals-timeline chart

            3.         Training and Development

                                    a.         practice of skills

                                    b.         video feedback

                                    c.         interview and rule-play

                                    d.         community resources

                                    e.         wardrobe and color

                                    f.          action plan

B.        Presentation and Image Development

            1.         Personal Assessment

            2.         Presentation Skills

                        a.         preparation, writing and delivery

                        b.         warm-up exercises and stress reduction

                        c.         body language, vocal variety and eye contact

                        d.         audience participation, motivation, storytelling and

                                    humor

                        e.         solutions:

                                                1.         nervousness

                                                2.         extemporaneous speaking

                                                3.         equipment

                                                4.         attention

                                                5.         q&a

                                                6.         employees' potential

            3.         Image Development

            4.         Development of Presentation Package

                        a.         marketing and selling yourself

                        b.         networking

                        c.         action plan

 

 

C.        Concept and Product Presentation

            1.         Personal Assessment

            2.         The Presentation

                        a.         active listening and mirroring

                        b.         positioning strategies

                        c.         product display

            3.         Evaluation

                        a.         assess clients and environments

                        b.         presentation effectiveness

            4.         Development of Sales Package

                        a.         selling self, concept and product

                        b.         action plan


 

PRESENTATION DEVELOPMENT BOOK

TABLE OF CONTENTS

6/86

 

PART ONE:  GROUND RULES

 

 

Chapter  I.           STYLE

                                    Image - Internal and External (each unique)

                                    Presentation "       "          "       (  "        "      )

                                    Attitude Is Everything

                                    Confidence and Self-esteem

                                    Balance - Home, Vocation and Community

                                    Perception and Worldview

                                                In the world for others

                                                Kauffman appendix

 

Chapter  II.         CAREER DEVELOPMENT

                                    Known and the Unknown

                                    Meaning of Life

                                                Unique Qualities-Vehicles-Results

                                    Second Life - Planning

                                                Same 24 Hours

                                                Spiral and Core

                                    The Structure of Balance - Actively Creating A Reality

                                    Short, Medium and Long Term Balance

 

PART TWO:

ASSESSMENT AND SKILL BUILDING

 

Chapter III.   PERSONAL ASSESSMENT

                                    If You Saw Yourself As Others Do You'd Walk Out

                                    The Image Others See (The first thirty seconds)

                                    Double Messages

                                    Paralinguistics-All Those Other Moves

                                    Posture and Gestures

                                    Face and Voice - Variety

                                    Physiology - The Tool

                                    Brain and Mouth

                                    Clothes and Color

                                    WhatTo Do With Your Hands

 

Chapter IV.         WORKING THE ENVIRONMENT

                                    Acoustics and Voice Projection

                                    Room Size, Shape and Color

                                    Seating Designs

                                    Where To Stand - Where To Look

                                    Sound Systems

                                    Visual Aids

                                    Lighting

                                    Scott's Laws (If It Should, It Won't - So Get Two)

 

Chapter V          YOUR AUDIENCE OR CLIENTS

                                    Attention and Retention

                                    Learning Styles - Cognitive Difference

                                    Mood Control

                                    Brain Speed

                                    Response Time

                                    Standing ovations

                                    Interaction (notes and handouts)

                                    Questions

                                    Conflict Resolution

 

Chapter VI         CONTENT AND PRODUCT - WHAT YOU SELL

                                    Multi-leveled Selling

                                    Persuasion - A Skill Used By Two Year Olds

                                    Needs and Desires

                                    Training With Video Feedback

 

Chapter VII        QUESTIONS MOST OFTEN ASKED

                                    What do I do with my hands?

                                    What if I forget where I am or where I'm going?

                                    What if my time is shortened or lengthened?

                                    Should I use notes?

                                    What should I do if the lights go out?

                                    What if the equipment breaks down?

                                    What if I have to do my own introduction?

                                    How do I get the audience to come up and talk                                              after my speech?

 

THE

TAYLORED

IMAGE

 

 

 

 

It is remarkable how much mediocrity we live with, surrounding ourselves

with daily reminders that the average is acceptable.  Our world suffers from terminal normality.  Take a moment to assess all of the things around you that promote your being "average."  These are the things that keep you powerless to go beyond a "limit" you arbitrarily set for yourself.  The first step to having what you really want is the removal of everything in your environment that represents mediocrity, removing those things that are limiting.  One way is to surround  yourself with friends who ask more of you than you do.  Didn't some of your best teachers, coaches, parents, etc.?

          

                                              S.E. on "mastery"

 


 SPEECH ORGANIZATION 

FOR BUSINESS PRESENTATIONS

                                                     

 

Introduction  

  1. Engage audience attention

                          2. Establish rapport with audience

                          3. Create audience interest in topic

                          4. Overview - Whole to the parts

                          5.  CONNECTIVE PHRASE

                                                                                                                                                    

                                     

Point Number ONE

                                                                                                                                                     1.   Subpoint(s)

                                                                                                                                                     2.   Supporting materials

 

                                                               3.   CONNECTIVE PHRASE

 

                   

Point Number TWO

                                                                                                                                                     1.    Subpoint(s)

                                                                                                                                                     2.    Supporting materials

 

                                                               3.    CONNECTIVE PHRASE

                                                                                       

                   

Point Number THREE

                                                                                                                                                     1.    Subpoint(s)

                                                                                                                                                     2.    Supporting materials

 

                                                               3.    CONNECTIVE PHRASE

                                                                       

Conclusion

   1. Tie it all together - Parts to the whole

                      2. Try to have audience actually "feel" your position                                                                    3.   Tie back into introductory attention getter

                      4. Answer your introductory provocative question

                      5. Take opening story one step further

                      6. Use proverb, aphorism, quotation, or a small bit of                                                                       poetry

                      7. Avoid mumbling the final clincher

                      8. Avoid thanking your audience


WRITTEN v.s. ORAL STYLES

1

 

 

     * Shorter sentences and words of fewer syllables are                                                                                                                               characteristic of oral style. 

     * Sentence fragments are acceptable, as are contractions. 

     * Even in a formal setting, a speech will still be more colloquial                                       than an essay on the same topic.

 

 

Written Style

Oral Style

____________________________________________________________________

 

As mentioned above...                                            As I said a few minutes ago...

 

One cannot avoid individuals with                         We can't avoid people like that.

this characteristic.                                          

 

A hypothetical case in point might                                                                                        be a situation where government...            Imagine this.  Suppose Uncle Sam...                                                           

 

 

It is unlikely that such will result.                         Well, maybe.

 

Subjects were randomly assigned                          Here's how we did our research. First

 to either a control group or one of                       we randomly assigned the subjects to

three experimental treatment                                four groups. Next we gave all four

groups, pretested for inital                                   groups a pretest to see what attitudes

attitudes toward the topic, then                           they held toward the topic.  Then

post-tested after each experimen-                         three of the groups heard persuasive

tal group had received a persuasive     appeals, one a medium level, one a                            messages. One had a high level of fear low level. Last, we post-tested the

message containing one of three                            attitudes of all four groups, including

levels of fear appeals.                                           the control group that received no

                                                                              message.                                                   

Sprague, Jo and Stewart, Douglas  The Speakers Handbook.  (Orlando, Florida:

      HBJ Publishers, 1984), 218.


FOUR STAGES OF MOTIVATION

IN A PERSUASIVE PRESENTATION

 

 

 

Attention

               The speaker must first motivate the audience to listen                            to the speech.

                       

Need

                        Auditors must become aware of a compelling,                                         personalized problem.

 

Satisfaction

            The course of action advocated must be shown to                                   alleviate the problem.

 

Visualization    

   Psychologically, it is important that the audience have a

                                 vivid picture of the benefits of agreeing with the                                     speaker, or the evils of alternatives.

 

Action 

                   The speech should end with an overt call for the                                      listeners to act.

              ___________________________________________________________

 

Imagine Your Audience Saying

Or Thinking To Themselves:

2

 

Ho Hum

                The audience must be stirred from lethargy or     

                                      complacency.

 

Why Bring

           A gripping attention getter is suspect unless quickly tied

That Up?

                      into some legitimate area of concern.  You need to explore

                                      the range of the problem and introduce your solution.

 

For

                                Elaboration and documentation must be provided.

Instance?

 

So What?

                     In closing, you should call for a behavioral commitment. 

                                      Tell the listener what to

do.

 

1 Ehninger, D., Monroe, A. H. and Gronbeck, B.E.,   Principles and Types of Speech Communication,

         8th ed. (Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foresman & Co., 1980), 142-158.

2 Bordon, R.C.,   Public Speacking As Listeners Like It.  (New York: Harper & Row, 1935), 3-18.

THE LONG AND THE SHORT OF YOUR PRESENTATION

 

Too Long:

 

1. Polish and tighten your language and phrasing. Speak simply.

2. Cut any supporting evidence and examples that duplicate effort.

3. Consider cutting out an entire main point.                 

4.  Use a one-liner that capsulizes your point instead of telling the whole  

     story.

5. Eliminate any long stories, jokes, narrations, unless they are absolutely

    essential to the theme of the speech.                                                                                              6. Consider using means other than speech to transmit technical or detailed

    information.  Use handouts and visual aids.

 

 

Too Short:

 

1. Find important ideas that are not developed enough relative to the other

    primary points.   

2. See if you are too concise.  The spoken word is fleeting and needs

    repetition, embellishment and illustration to bring home the

    exact emphasis that you want to deliver.

 3. Make sure you have proven all your points.  Double-check your evidence

    to be sure that you haven't assumed too much or made some logical

    leaps that are not justified.

4.  Have you researched the topic enough?

 

 

CREATING MORE POWERFUL

INTRODUCTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

 

 

Introductions

 

Don't

  begin with, "Before I start I'd like to say..."  You have already started.

Don't

  ever begin with an apology like: "I'm not really prepared" or "I don't

     know much about this, but..."

Don't

  be dramatic to the point of assuming a whole new identity or persona.

     Leave that to the impersonators and give

your

  speech

yourself.

Don't

  use an attention getter that has no real link to your topic. 

Don't

  make your introduction seem disproportionately long.

Don't

  use stock phrases like "Unaccustomed as I am to public speaking"

     or overworked apocryphal stories.  Have a colleague critique your

     personal collection of sayings.

Don't 

startle your audience by coming out of a yogalike trance into an

     explosion of oral energy. Engage your audience before your start.

Don't

  start with a long quotation that leaves your audience wondering

     where the quotation ends and your words begin.

 

Conclusions

 

Don't

 end with an apology:

     "I guess I've rambled on long enough."

     "I don't know if I've made this clear."

     "I'm not usually this hyper; it must be the coffee."

Don't 

trail off. Do your audience the courtesy of wrapping things up and

     using a clincher.

Don't 

introduce a whole new idea in your conclusion.  The body of your

     speech is the place for that.

Don't

  make the conclusion disproportionately long.  It is a summary and

     ending.

Don't 

end a speech in a style or mood that is at odds with the tenor of the

     rest of the speech.  You do your listeners a disservice if you have kept

     them laughing up to the very end only to hit them with a stark recitation

     of doom.

Don't 

use the phrases "in conclusion" or "in summary" in any part of the

     speech other than the actual conclusion. 

                                                                                           Date:   /    /

 

PRESENTATION SKILLS FEEDBACK FORM

 

Speaker__________________________         Evaluator________________________

 

PRESENTATION   

Excellent         Good            Fair               Other Comment

 Image

   wardrobe                               ___                       ___                  ___                           ___________________  

      impact                                                                                                                  __________________         

      believable                           ___                       ___                  ___                            ___________________

      relaxed                               ___                       ___                  ___                          ___________________

  enthusiasm/energy                    ___                       ___                     ___                        ___________________

  compelling/moving                  ___                       ___                     ___                         ___________________

  audience response                     ___                       ___                     ___                        ___________________

  visual aids                         ___                       ___                   ___                              ___________________

 

Body Movement

       movement                         ___                       ___                                                 ___          ___________________

       posture                              ___                        ___                  ___                         ___________________

       gestures                             ___                        ___                    ___                        ___________________

  Facial Expression

       animated                           ___                      ___                     ___                        ___________________              

       friendly                             ___                      ___                     ___                        ___________________       

       natural/genuine                   ___                      ___                     ___                        ___________________

       appropriate to

        speech content                   ___                      ___                     ___                        ___________________ 

 

Eye Contact

      natural/smooth                    ___                      ___                      ___                        ___________________

      1-5 sec. each

        person                              ___                      ___                     ___                        ___________________

      no set pattern                      ___                      ___                     ___                        ___________________

 

Voice

      vocal variety                       ___                      ___                      ___                        ___________________       

      rate or pace                         ___                      ___                      ___                        ___________________                           

      use of pauses                 ___                            ___                      ___                        ___________________

      use of non-words         ___    ___                          ___                                              ___________________

      articulation                         ___                      ___                      ___                        ___________________

CONTENT

       clarity                               ___                      ___                      ___                        ___________________

       conciseness                        ___                      ___                      ___                        ___________________

       personalized                       ___                      ___                      ___                        ___________________

       visual language                   ___                      ___                      ___                        ___________________

       organization:                     

         1. introduction                 ___                      ___                      ___                        ___________________

         2. body                           ___                      ___                      ___                        ___________________

         3. conclusion                   ___                      ___                      ___                        ___________________

GENERAL COMMENTS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

POSSIBLE PRACTICE SCHEDULES

____________________________________________________________________

Type of speech                    Major policy                      Routine oral report in a

                                             address                               business setting

____________________________________________________________________

Assignment was                   Several weeks before          Twenty-four hours before

made                                    

____________________________________________________________________

Research and outline            One week before                Evening before

completed

____________________________________________________________________

Early practice                       Two-one week                   Afternoon or evening

sessions                                before: discuss ideas           before: talk through

                                             with colleagues. Six,           basic ideas with

                                             five days before: talk          friends or colleagues.

                                             through speech once           Evening before:

                                             a day.                                  practice aloud one to

                                                                                        three times

____________________________________________________________________

Middle practice                    Four days before:               Morning of speech:

sessions                                give speech on                    give speech to           

                                             videotape, review               colleague, if possible.

                                             with advisers, repeat                                                     

____________________________________________________________________

Final practice                       Three, two, one day           Day of speech:

sessions                                before: practice                   practice aloud once.

                                             aloud once a day.                Review notes just

                                             Read notes or outline         before leaving for speech

                                             about once a day.

                                             Day of speech:

                                             practice aloud once.

                                             Review notes just

                                             before speaking

____________________________________________________________________

 

 

         A short word on

             the condition of             

SOCIETY

                       in general,

I

N       with the

T            importance of               

EDUCATION

                to its stability,

R       

O        which leads to

              the topic of                    

TEACHER

                                         TRAINING


 

                                            BODY

                                              OF

                                          SPEECH

 

 

 

          

Reiteration of how       

TEACHER

                                        TRAINING          

is important

C

O                              to              

EDUCATION

            as a whole, which

N

C       as we know is

L       important to the

         maintenance of                   

SOCIETY

 

Emotion In Your Presentation

 

When adding emotion to your speech, remember the old adage, "although some is good, more is not always better."

 

DEVOID OF EMOTION

 

A dose of 600 rems produces acute radiation illness.  Japanese A-bomb

victims experienced a variety of physical symptoms and usually died

within two weeks of exposure.

 

MODERATE EMOTION

 

A dose of 600 rems or more produces acute radiation illness.  Thousands of Japanese A-bomb victims died from this sickness within two weeks of the bomb explosions.  Such exposure to radiation kills all actively dividing cells in the body: hair falls out, skin is sloughed off in big ulcers, vomiting and diarrhea occur, and then, as the white blood cells and platelets die, victims expire of infection and/or massive hemorrhage.1

 

 EXCESSIVE EMOTION

 

The bomb has fallen, and you're unlucky enough not to have been killed immediately.  There's nothing you can do except sit there dumbly, in your own vomit and excrement, while the omnipresent radiation kills off the process of life.  With no cell growth, your skin becomes leprous and detaches from your body in great clumps;  but you don't notice because your white blood cells have died and dark swelling has overtaken all of your body, immersing you in a pain that will not subside until a weakened artery in your brain bursts in a final geyser of black blood.

 

On any topic there are these three levels.  What you have to do very early is discern where your audience draws the dividing lines.  Try to include the optimal amount of emotional appeal-not so little that you fail to touch them, not so much that you turn them off.

 

  1 Helen Caldicott, Nuclear Madness (Brookline, Mass.: Autumn Press,  

     1978),29.

 


EVALUATING YOUR BODY'S SPOKEN IMAGE

 

 Speaker________________________      Date _____________________

____________________________________________________________________

 

POSTURE                                                                                                                             POSTURE  

Nervous/uneasy                                                 1 2 3 4 5                                                           Poised

Uncertain                                                           1 2 3 4 5                                                           Confident

Uncomfortable                                                   1 2 3 4 5                                                           Comfortable

Slouching                                                           1 2 3 4 5                                                           Erect

Stiff                                                                  1 2 3 4 5                                                           Relaxed

________________________________________________________________________________

 

GESTURES                                                                                                                          GESTURES

Artificial/wooden                                                 1 2 3 4 5                                                           Natural/spontaneous

Random                                                            1 2 3 4 5                                                           Meaningful

Passive                                                             1 2 3 4 5                                                           Lively

Furtive                                                              1 2 3 4 5                                                           Expansive

Vague                                                               1 2 3 4 5                                                           Precise

Detracted from                                                   1 2 3 4 5                                                           Enhanced verbal

    verbal message                                                                                                                        message

________________________________________________________________________________

 

BODY MOVEMENTS                                                                                                            BODY MOVEMENTS

Lifeless/dull                                                       1 2 3 4 5                                                           Fluid/animated

Awkward                                                            1 2 3 4 5                                                           Graceful

Random                                                            1 2 3 4 5                                                           Purposeful

Drew attention away                                            1 2 3 4 5                                                           Enhanced attentive-

  from speech                                                                                                                              ness to speech

________________________________________________________________________________

 

FACIAL EXPRESSIONS                                                                                                        FACIAL EXPRESSIONS

Deadpan                                                            1 2 3 4 5                                                           Animated

Unfriendly                                                         1 2 3 4 5                                                           Friendly

Artificial                                                             1 2 3 4 5                                                           Natural/genuine

Incongruent                                                        1 2 3 4 5                                                           Appropriate to

                                                                                                                                                 speech content

________________________________________________________________________________

 

EYE CONTACT                                                                                                                     EYE CONTACT

Forced/artificial                                                  1 2 3 4 5                                                           Natural/smooth

Followed set pattern                                            1 2 3 4 5                                                           No set pattern

Did not establish                                                 1 2 3 4 5                                                           Established bonds

  visual bonds                                                                                                                             with listeners

 

NON-VERBAL BEHAVIOR RESEARCH

    

The average

sales

increase at firms employing non-verbal training techniques has been 41 percent.  Individual performance is even more astounding.

 

Research findings from UCLA suggest that feelings and

attitudes

are expressed seven percent of the time with words, 38 percent with tone of voice, and 55 percent non-verbally.

 

Buyers

can easily tell when appropriate nonverbal expressions fail to match verbal presentations.

 

All non-verbal messages transmitted by the client should call forth a

supportive

non-verbal message from the sales representative.

                                                                                                    G. Gschwandtner                                                 

 

Discrete

mirroring

enhances communication by putting the other person at ease.

                                                                                                    L. L'Herisson                                                         

 

Images, settings, and body language.... they carry the messages; and indeed, in some cases, they are

the messages

.

 

Meaning of any

gesture

depends on cultural norms, personal style, the physical setting, what has gone before, and what both parties anticipate for the future.

 

Facial expression, along with tone of voice, accounts for more than

90 percent

of the communication between people.

 

Even

without

saying a word we are sending messages to a client.

 

When a person is communicating well, the body language moves

in concert

with the words.

                                                                                                    M. McCaskey

                                                                                                                                                                    

One function of visual behavior is simply the announcement of a

readiness

to communicate.

                                                                                                    Cranach

                                                        

Speakers look at listeners for

cues

on which to base future behavior.

 

Speakers can

regulate

conversations with eye movement.

                                                                                                    Kendon

                                                       

Those who engaged in longer, but less frequent

gaze

, were better liked than those who interacted with short, frequent looks.

 

There is a greater

GSR response

in subjects looking at a person's eyes than when looking at their mouth.  Likewise with

heart rate.

 

High

eye contact

was rated more positively - friendly, self-confident, natural, mature, and sincere.                     

                                                                                                    Harper, Wiens, & Matarazzo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

READING THE PROSPECT

Positive Signals

 

     Any one of the following can signal "yes" or "maybe":

 

*  Straightening up their desk when you enter.

*  Firm, warm handshake not terminated abruptly.

*  Sits up, and sometimes forward, in their seat with interest,

    not belligerence.  Leans slightly toward you.

*  Arms uncrossed, "open," sometimes on desk.

*  Relaxed hands, more "open," less fistlike, not flat on desk.

*  Face and mouth open, not obstructed by hands.  Their body and

    face generally centered and keyed on you when you are

    speaking.

*  Sits relatively still, swivels only to face or follow you.

*  Relaxed facial muscles (especially the jaw); mouth may even

    be open slightly during listening.

*  Legs crossed, casually open, or scissored apart at the knee.

*  Legs crossed, ankle rests on opposite knee, the nearest hand

    rests on raised ankle.

*  Any casual personal action, like tying a shoe, loosening a

    belt, or preening.

*  Eyes open and relaxed, clear, and maintaining reciprocal

    contact. (However, in a male/female situation, beware of

    flirting.)

*  Pupils large.  If they start to narrow and not in response to

    bright light, you're turning him off.

*  "Mirrors" your positions and expressions gradually, as you

    win them over.

*  Breathes  normally.

*  Smiles or laughs at something funny.

*  Even, relaxed movements.

*  Pats their hair or grooms in some way.

*  Strokes their chin (a fairly common "maybe").

*  Makes single or double, positive head-nods (more than

    three is effected nod-service).

*  Moves reluctantly if they have to take a call.

*  Takes off or unbuttons their jacket.  Loosens their collar or tie.

*  Takes off their glasses or looks over them to see you.

*  Invites you away from their desk into an informal area.

    (Careful: The prospect might be trying to defuse the encounter

    by turning it into a social thing.  Stick to business; you

    can be sociable later.)

*  Touches you, i.e., a light touch, prod, or a slap on the back,

    arm, or shoulder.  A hand guiding you or a nudge with an

    elbow. (Women, beware: You almost never touch a man. Be

    extremely wary of male prospects touching you.  Touching

    can be his effort to disarm you and win your affection so you

    won't react so badly to his ultimately

not

  buying.  The worst

    touch is the patronizing one that is likely to be bestowed

    upon petite young saleswomen by older male prospects.)

*  Assumes a more casual position.

*  Moves something between you and them on the desk out of

    the way.

*  Leans toward you promptly to receive things (papers, pens,

    samples).

*  Shows you pictures or awards or anything from their personal

    life.

*  Puts their feet up on something, although not in your face.

*  Moistens their lips.

*  Looks skyward when trying to remember something.

*  Gets up and paces while thinking. (they're on the fence--push

    them over to your side.)

 

NEGATIVE SIGNALS

 

     Any one or combination of the following can signal "no":

 

*  Sits dead center, close behind their desk.

*  Leans way back, clasps their hands, or crosses their arms.

*  Sits belligerently upright or forward with palms down on

    the desk or their hands folded directly in front of them, a

    defensive bulwark.

*  Sits squarely, feet flat, leans forward somewhat, shoulders

    slightly shrugged, and places both palms on their thighs;

    elbows are out and thumbs point at one another.  

*  Swivels away from you in their chair.

*  Signals termination of a short, perfunctory handshake.

*  Avoids eye contact.

*  Closes their eyes in long, frequent blinks as you talk.

*  Points their pen or fingers at you.

*  Holds their fingers up to enumerate points of their reponses,

    palms toward you.

*  Uses their hands as masks and shields to hide their mouth and

    face.

*  Hands closed, almost in fists.

*  Forearms held up, a shield or obstacle between you.

*  Feet flat on the floor, legs together, not crossed.

*  Forehead furrows, eyebrows knot.

*  Eyelids narrow, pupils pinpointed.

*  Lips and mouth tight, set, and dry.

*  Puts on their jacket.  Tightens their tie.  Buttons their jacket.

*  Plays with or arranges things  on the desk or fidgets while you talk.

*  Does a series of more than three head nods. (Such a series is

    usually forced. Call it "nod service.")

*  Doesn't return your smile.  Keeps a serious look at all times.

*  Puts on their glasses for no reason.

*  Supports their head with their hands.

*  Uses their hair to hide their eyes.  Women with longer hair tend

    to use this a lot; they can block most of their face with a wall

    of hair.

*  Bites down hard, displaying taut jaw muscles.

*  Keeps plucking imaginary lint off their clothes.

*  Puts their hands behind their head, like a pillow.

*  Quick, jerky moves.

*  Bites their lips.

*  Opens and closes desk drawers, as if looking for something.

*  Lets you catch them looking at their watch or clock.

*  Head or body tilted to the side, or way back.

*  Hands scratching or touching parts of head or face.

*  Keeps getting up.

*  Their tongue in their cheek.

*  Deep, labored breathing.

*  Turns their body generally to the side or away from you when

    you talk, straight at you when their on the attack.

*  Smiles when you haven't said anything funny.  Beware of the

    prospect that smiles right from the beginning of the call; their

    using it as a mask.

*  Moves quickly to take all their calls.

*  Obvious universals, such as negative head shakes or yawns,

    intentional or unintentional.

*  Doesn't lean forward when you hand or show them something.

   Takes thing slowly and reluctantly.

*  Pushes up the middle of their forehead with their fingers

   (boredom, irritation).

*  Puts their fingers to the side of their nose (doubt).

*  Rubs their nose a lot (but doesn't have a cold).

*  Lifts their hand or index finger a bit while listening. (They will

    disagree with that point.)

*  Puts their finger to the space between their lip and nose. (If they're          

    talking, they just exaggerated or lied; if they're listening, they are    

    displeased.)

*  Hunches, chin to chest. (You are invading personal space.)

*  Drums their fingers, rocks in their chair, hunches, "blocks"

    with their shoulder, moves or turns away, and blinks over-

    much or overlong.  ( A typical you-are-invading-personal-

    territory display.)


CLASSIC NONVERBAL GESTURES AND POSTURES

 

BEAR HUG 

                          Arms across chest, is one of the

                                                            most common ways of getting a

                                                            grip on yourself

 

SEA GULL                                        

Hands and arms extended from the

                                                sides forming sea gull wings

 

AUCHTUNG!

                                    Arms stiff, wrists firmly nailed

                                                            to pelvis

 

FLESH WOUND                              

One arm hangs useless at the side,

                                                            the other hand serves as a tour-

                                                            tourniquet above or below the elbow

 

RIGORMORTIS ARMS     

After using the arm for a gesture,  

                                                the arm drops to the thigh with a slap

 

FIRING SQUAD                              

Legs slightly spread, hands tied

                                                            behind back

 

CHOIRBOY/GIRL               

Hands clasped at waist level, every

                                                            finger entwined

 

BEGGAR                                           

Hands clasped at chest level with

                                             fingers entwined

 

FIG LEAF                                          

Demurely crossed hands, strate-

                                                            gically placed

 

JITTERBUG                    

Hand gestures move at the speed of

                                             light to keep up with every syllable

                                             spoken.  No connection to meaning.

 

PHANTOM ITCH              

The unconscious need to scratch or

           rub any part of the body.

 

 

Presentation and Professional Image  Development  

  

 

 

Designed for professionals who present themselves and their ideas to peers, clients or the general public, this program includes:

 

Personal Assessment

 

* Profile of presentation and professional image

* Inventory of communication skills

 

Presentation Skills

 

* Understanding concepts of Presentation, Environment and Audience

* Guidance in the preparation, writing and delivery of presentations

* Warm-up exercises and stress-reduction techniques

* Video feedback to improve body language, vocal variety and eye contact

* Ways to market and "sell" yourself

* Communication techniques including audience participation and motivation,

    storytelling and humor

* Dealing with presentation challenges such as  extemporaneous speeches,

    microphones, visual aids and props, attention grabbers and question-and-answer sessions

 

Image Development

 

* Coordination of overall image

* Wardrobe and color consultation

 

This one-on-one training concentrates on your specific communication, presentation and image development needs.  You will experience positive verbal and nonverbal behavior changes even after the first session.  There is no one image that is supreme.  Your unique qualities are enhanced with training allowing you to instruct, entertain and persuade any audience.

 

               

 TIPS FOR THE EFFECTIVE USE OF VISUAL AIDS

 

 

     People believe what they see before believing what they hear, and they remember what they both see and hear in reference to either one separately.  Since your objectives include being believed and helping your audience remember what you have told them, visual aids make a vital contribution to reaching those goals.

 

SEVEN GUIDELINES FOR THE USE OF VISUAL AIDS

 

1. 

Show the visual aid while you are talking about it

  

Cover it or turn off the projector when you want attention directed back to you.  Your audience cannot concentrate on both at the same time.

2.

 Be sure that everyone in the audience can clearly see the aids.

  Visibility to the people at the rear of the room is your guide.  Make letters large with plenty of space between lines.  You can be certain of clarity by following what is known as the seven-seven principle.  Use no more than seven lines on a transparency or slide and a maximum of seven words per line.

3. 

Limit the amount of information on any one visual to a single main idea.

  Don't fill it up with words.  The visual should be a summary of what you are saying, not the entire speech.

4.

  Use title phrases on each visual to supplement the material.

  For example, write "Spending Increases" rather than "Chart 1."

5. 

Talk to your audience, not to the visual aid.

 Maintain eye contact even when your listeners are looking at the visual.  This will help you judge their understanding.

6. 

Don't overdo it.

  You need not illustrate every point in the speech.

7. 

Rehearse.

  Nothing is more important than adequate preparation.  Know how and when you will use the visual, and practice until you can do it smoothly.  Anticipate all possible problems, especially when machines are involved.

 

 

DIRECT AIDS

 

     These include the chalkboard, cardboard poster, flipchart, physical model, handout, flannel board, magnetic board, and hook-and-loop board.  There are two general categories of two-dimensional visuals: those prepared in advance and extemporary aids (both require advance planning).

Prepared Visuals

(carboard posters, etc.)

*  Introduce the visual before reading it.

*  Make sure the easel is sturdy.

*  Keep the visual high enough so those in the back can see; don't stand in               front of it. 

*  Thoroughly explain the information on the visual before elaborating.

*  Use color contrasts for easy visibility.

Extemporary Visuals

(chalkboard, flipchart)

*  Start with a clean blank visual (although you might wish to write in light 

    pencil what you plan to write later for the audience).  

*  Keep your time at the visual short; abbreviate.

*  Print clearly, using large strokes.

*  Stand sideways as you write.

*  Erase the board or flip to a new page before going to the next point.

 

PROJECTED AIDS

 

     These include slides, overhead transparencies, motion pictures, and videotape.  Guidelines for the first two (single-frame media) include:

*  Make sure the equipment is working and a spare bulb is on hand.

*  Bring your own visuals with you.  Don't trust them to someone else,   

    especially to airline baggage.

*  Use as much color as possible.  Be sure the visual can be seen and read.

*  Give the audience several seconds to study each visual as it is flashed on

    the screen.

*  Keep a visual on the screen as long as the projector is turned on.  Don't 

    blind your audience with a blank white light.

*  Avoid keeping the room dark for more than 10 minutes.  You want your

    audience to stay awake.

 


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© Scott Taylor 2016