Team Development

The Art ans Process of Team Development



The Team As A System

The Team Member As A System

Five Stages Of Team Development

Assessment and Review

Twelve Core Characteristics

Workshop Sessions

Follow-Up Session



A Team is a group, but not all groups qualify as a teams.


May not necessarily agree upon goals or purpose from which to organize the people involved or give meaning to

the group.

May not require the members to accept each others strengths and weaknesses.

May have little adaptation to the variety of each members personal style.

Often do not create and maintain rituals and traditions. Do not necessarily need a leader.
When adding new members, may see no positive effect.

Groups of unrelated objects or people are classically known, in cybernetic systems theory, as heaps, messes or

masses. Until they have a purpose to unify themselves, they are not considered a viable system (team).

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Stc. 212, Mt, View, CA. 94041 ©1984, 1988.


"[Are] a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming a unified whole;"

"a group of interacting bodies under the influence of related forces:"

"a group of body organs that together perform one or more vital functions:"

"an organization forming a network especially for distributing something or serving a common purpose."

Webster's Dictionary

"[Have] subsystems fwhichl carry out a particular function for its

system and keeps one or more specific variables ( processes) in a

steady state. Subsystems must be arranged so that the system is continuous in space and time." Miller

Systems are recognizable as viable and not heaps, because of the following characteristics:

• Purpose
• Subsystem functions fulfill the systems purpose
 • People perform functions, they are not functions
 • Boundaries and environments
• Inputs of matter, energy and information(ME/I)
 • Processing that produces outputs (ME/I)
• Feedback that stabilizes and regulates
• Hierarchical, place constraints and have 
emergent properties

It is important to recognize the differences between groups (heaps) and teams (systems) to achieve high levels of cooperation and performance.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212, Mt. View, CA. 94041 ©1984, 1988.


Are an intentional group of people committed tot • achieving common objectives,

• working effectively and efficiently together, • enjoying both work and growth, and
• producing high quality results.

Are also <« alignment and agreement about their: • Image

• Purpose
• Objectives
• Goals
• Tasks
• Integrity, beliefs and values
• Variety of thinking and working styles • Willingness to change over time
• Roles
• Responsibilities
• Procedure for resolving conflict
• Career development
• Rewards

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle. Ste. 212. Ht. View. CA. 94041 ©1984. 1988.


A style of working aimed at harnessing the collective talent and energy of an intentional human system.

A wav to produce outstanding results and to succeed in achieving goals despite inherent

blockages and collective dysfunctions.

An attitude held by members that makes them

feel energetic and responsible for the input-

process-output of their team and act to openly clear any blockages standing in their way.

An emotional entity created by each team member's feelings, as well as in the thoughts of the

whole; they actively care about each others well being and ultimate success.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212, Mt. View. CA. 94041 ©1984, 1988.


IS AN ART - The pulling together and training of different members with various cognitive styles and to set them in motion towards an

agreed upon end.

IS A PROCESS - Setting out with deliberate intent, skills and techniques that enables a "group" to obtain and sustain a cooperative environment and effort.

IS AN OPEN. LEARNING ATTITUDE - The willingness to constantly monitor and recognize the difference between team health and dysfunction. To
be willing to remove blockages to keep the team stable and productive.

IS AN OPEN FORMULA - The formula is generic in many respects, yet

open to the special needs of each group. Some basic elements of the formula are:

• Open sharing by each member of their im&g£.of the team. • Synthesizing various images into a single team purpose.

• Agreeing on functions, objectives and tasks to be performed.
• Meeting regularly to maintain the focus on the team purpose.
• Creating team rituals to reaffirm the purpose of the team.
• Seeing, understanding and adapting to the variety of thinking/working

styles of each member.

  • Allowing personal ego to meld (without loss of autonomy) into the team ego.
  • Agreeing that time will alter the teams image and the purpose may need

slight asUsstrnfiat. m M ^

Leading may only be necessary during times of confusion and change.

New members need a formal socialization process.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212, Mt. View, CA. 94041 ®1984, 1988.



Team development has common elements, but it is not a step-by-step process.

Team development is an ongoing, systemic process.

Team development issues are deliberately named and worked through when dysfunction is

recognized and the blockages visible.

Issues are worked out during both the formal team

development sessions, as well as during normal, on-the-job activities.

Issues named and worked out satisfactorily almost always serve to make the team stronger.

Understanding team dysfunctions and clearing- blockages are the most important tasks of the

developing team.

Working through these dysfunctions and blockages takes time, resources, focused effort, commitment

and vulnerability.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle. Ste. 212, Mt. View, CA. 94041 ©1984, 1988.

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What business are we in? Where do we get our resources?

How do we produce results?

©WHEW? What are our products and rewards? SQJI88H9flri£l!f@ What functions do we perform? HX3)HHMMMS!© What are our rules, roles and responsibilities? ©^^^^©MMlimP How do we fit into the larger system? MMMM(DIE How are we monitored and regulated? IUl^MiJ^IMiniP Who is in charge and when?

Write out a quick overview of your system using the above questions. Then check your ideas out with the following systems concepts to see if in fact you have a viable system.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle. Ste. 212. Mt. View. CA. 94041 ©1984. 1988.

#1 The High Performance Team System is

* To see and/or consider the whole system and its relationship with other systems, and

* To see and/or consider the relationship between all the parts with all the other parts, and

* To see and/or consider these wholes and parts, their boundaries

id their feedback within a context or environment, all at the same tune.

A mature team must come to grips with many complex issues at the same time. Issues of control, leadership, procedures, organization, roles and all of the

complexity entailed with human interaction.

The team as a system acts as a structure or scaffolding for its members. It gives a form to the tasks undertaken, the expression of individual talents and skills, and appreciation for individual contributions. The team requires an attitude that is flexible, responsive, yet, orderly and focused.

The team as a system is set up to create a consistent and persistent internal environment that reduces confusion to a minimum and stabilizes all parts and process.

The team as a system allows each person to cope with feelings of hostility, competitiveness and aggression by having an open, ongoing team development process.

The team is not reductionistic or holistic, but systemic. It requires a consideration of personal needs as well as the consensus needs of the team.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212, Mt. View, CA. 94041 ©1984. 1988.

#2 The High Performance Team System has INPUT-PROCESS-OUTPUT i

* Input - people, supplies, materials, ideas and energy (ME/I)

* Process - planning, strategy, rules, regulations, laws, limits, formats, methods, procedures and algorithms

* Output - waste, product, people, and feedback (ME/I)

All open systems have inputs of matter, energy and/or information

(ME/I). They have process functions that manipulates and pro cesses the ME/I. The resulting effect sustains the system and ejects

products, waste, people or feedback

A team's capacity to bring in and use resources (input), and deliver the goods (output) is a measure of its performance.

Teams have the capacity to achieve results with a combined team effort that the individuals, who make up the team, could not accomplish alone (the process).






SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212, Mt. View, CA. 94041 ©1984, 1988.

#3 The High Performance Team System has FUNCTIONS

* Comes from breaking down the purpose into workable parts.

* These functions must support and fulfill the team purpose.

* Any function that does not support the team purpose should be looked at with suspicion.

The team's functions need to be understood, shared and felt to be worthwhile by all members.

Members need to see how each person's functions contribute to the end result.

The functions must be taken on with the passion of a purpose by the owner.

Functions must be broken down into objectives and commitments made to achieve these objectives by responsible team members.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212, Mt. View, CA. 94041 ©1984, 1988.

#4 The High Performance Team System has ENVIRONMENT

* The Internal environment, which contains the subsystem functions, the physical atmosphere, equipment, management and communication climate;

* And the external environment, which contains other systems having

relationship with our primary team, communication networks, ME/I resources and common boundaries

* Environments are separated by boundaries which are made up of

restraints, rules, regulations, limitations, and natural and man made written and unwritten agreements.


Tfrflm spirit allows an openness between members and an environment of support to exist.

Members identify themselves with the team and it's success or failures and exhibit a team spirit.

Each member extends themselves intentionally to serve the interests of the team.

£asfld£&££8_can be shared and built, personal difficulties worked through, and risks undertaken, as well as successes celebrated.


Team members need to know what functions are a part of their system (controlled bv team members), and which are clearly a part of the

surrounding environment (controlled bv external forces).

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212, Mt. View, CA. 94041 ©1984. 1988.

#5 The High Performance Team System has

  • *  Pleasure resulting from clearly understanding what to do
  • *  Having the skills and experience to accomplish a personally meaningful task
  • *  Receiving appreciation and rewards
  • *  Choosing new endeavors that stretch our skills and peak our interest

* Being driven by a clear (life) purpose

* possibly being driven by addiction which becomes draining and results in burnout

Passion must be sustained by rewards on a regular basis (meetings, social events, awards, profits, rituals, trips, training, promotions).

Team members get energy and motivation from one another. Shared passion is infectious.

The team has a capacity beyond the sum of its individual parts.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212, Mt. View, CA. 94041 ©1984, 1988.

#6 The HighPerformanceTeamSystem has INTEGRITY

• Being truthful, living up to your word, not cheating, being sincere, honest and open with your motivations and intentions;

• Taking responsibilities for your actions, refusing to compromise your

ethics or values, standing up for right even when unpopular or politically unwise;

• Not succumbing to pressure to please a boss, being a team player, facing the fear of failure;

• These are all necessary assets to a successful career and life.

The team needs to build and agree upon an open process in which members can feel free to explore issues of integrity.

It takes "character" for individuals and teams to maintain a high degree of integrity while working together to fulfill a purpose

Integrity is a powerful professional, as well as personal, asset for each member.

Once lost, it becomes a burdensome liability that is difficult to remove.

Remember, integrity is fully consistent with the highest levels of achievement.

Remember - don't forget FORGIVENESS. An open system will make use of negative situations to flame positive growth. Work with options in mind.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212, Mt. View, CA. 94041 ©1984, 1988.

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1. It is not okay to talk about problems.
2. Feelings should not be expressed openly.

3. Communication is best if indirect, with one person acting as the messenger between two others.

4. Be strong, good, right, and perfect. 5. Make us proud.
6. Don't be selfish.
7. Do as I say and not as I do.

8. It is not okay to play or be playful. 9. Don't rock the boat.

10. Kill the messenger if all else fails.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212, Mt. View, CA. 94041 ©1984, 1988.


In addition to the characteristics and processes that have been described earlier, organizations are addicts...

...whose processes have become unmanageable and who are powerless over their addictive behavior...

...who have become increasingly involved in the addictive process...

...whose processes have become dominated by their compulsive addictions and who have lost a sense of their values and personal


...who function primarily out of characteristics such as self-centeredness, the illusion of control, dishonesty, and dualism...

...who become progressively isolated from input from society, family, and friends...

...who, as they become internally more chaotic, exert progressively more control over those on whom they depend and on their immediate


...whose thinking process is confused, obsessive, and paranoid-like and different from normal thinking processes...

There is no real possibility for change and transformation in the

organization unless those involved recognize that they are addicted and function the same as an active addict. The key to organizational

transformation lies in this truth.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212, Mt. View, CA. 94041 ©1984, 1988.


It would be impossible to give a blueprint for how an organization

might look as it leaves the addictive-compulsive process. There

are, however, several implications for organizations as they take a serious look at this information.

1. The mission of the organization would be supported by the structure.

2. There would be awareness that the structure and the system, that

is, the way of organizing the work, are integral to the company's mission and must support and facilitate the work of the


3. Organizations would be moral, ethical and operate from total integrity.

4. Organizations would develop permeable boundaries.

5. Communication in recovering organizations would be characterized as multidirectional.

6. Leadership In organizations would be diffused and situational. 7. Organizations would alter their view of change.
8. Would not lynch the messenger.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212, Mt. View, CA. 94041 ©1984, 1988.

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Meeting New Colleagues:

Feelings or attitudes may include superiority, eagerness, excitement, challenge, achievement motivation, or

possibly negative feelings like inferiority, evasiveness, fear, hostility, and attention seeking.

Finding A Role In The Pecking Order:

Relationship to others abilities, observing others nonverbal behavior, and, asking, "How do I belong to this

Getting Acquainted:

Being up front or laid back, using humor and talking shop,

looking for norms and differences, and looking for commitment and openness.

Testing The Process:

Gradually increasing communication and contact, finding out details about others, wanting to know attitudes,

values, skills and style of the others, and the degree of their vulnerability. Testing continues until each person makes a decision about all other members of the team.


Appearances may only be skin-deep and be deceiving. Work appears to be getting done and members appear

friendly towards each other. Real issues will now bubble

up and present dysfunctions and blockages. The ability to resolve these dysfunctions and blockages is the result of

what has been learned about new social situations by each person prior to this teams formation.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212. Mt. View, CA. 94041 ©1084. 1988.

MOVING ON TO STAGE 2 What to do:


Make The Purpose Of Team Clear:

Define, define and define some more. * Set purpose, objectives and goals.

Speak openly of rewards, risks and options. Begin Setting Team Identity:

"Ask, "What are we in the business of?"
*Ask, "How are we different from other teams?"

Connect each individual to the theme, project, product, task or result.

Make commitment to team verbally. Establish Roles:

Openly discuss the job functions (roles and responsibilities). Lead With Conviction:

Leader should communicate understanding of team purpose.

Leader should define rewards.
Leader should elaborate personal and professional history

of each member.
* Write these items down on paper and publish for team use.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212, Mt. View, CA. 94041 ©1984, 1988.


Sorting Out Relationships:

Handling power and influence, forming alliances, individuals

emerge with special talents, roles and responsibilities. Conflicts can increase. Level of participation is high for some

and low for others. Team Leader:

Recognize his/her role, position must be earned. Members

may accept the team manager's leadership or may find hidden

ways to evade it. Team spirit may be reduced with repressed

feelings. Team manager may have to negotiate many small conflicts.

Operational Procedure:

How will the team operate? All issues have to do with

control, and questions like who controls the team, how is control exercised, and what happens when a member does not measure up are asked. The team must resolve these

questions about control before proceeding. There are no step-by-step approaches or easy answers. Competition for position and power increases.

False Positioning:

Team may not be able to remove control blockages and move

on. Team may appear to be making progress, yet underneath there are fundamental weakness.


Individuals are still solving problems from their "best shot

technique". Members become unsure of team mission and seek to alter it. Splinter groups separately talk about

problems. "Rumblings" around office and grapevine negatively active. Anxiety is negatively amplified. People may want to move out of the team if anxiety is to high.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212. Mt. View. CA. 94041 ©1984, 1988.

MOVING ON TO STAGE 3 What to do:

Role Consensus:
* Roles, responsibilities and expectations must be defined and

agreed upon by team members.

Share as much details about individuals work responsibilities as possible.

Continue Open Communications:

Openly discuss differences in work styles. Develop listening skills of team.
Develop meeting effectiveness skills of team. Meet on a regular and irregular (informal) basis.

Set Standard Of Quality And Integrity:
* Openly discuss and commit to a procedure to ensure rigorous

honesty between members.
* Answer the question about minimum and maximum

standards when it comes to work performed.

Get and give team members support for integrity issues. Team Manager:

Continue asking members for accountability and results. * Recognize and publicize team successes.

Actively listen to members and follow up on commitments.

Control Issues:
* Open discussion regarding the operation plan of the team.

What are the controls and boundaries of the team. Conflict must be dealt with in positive manner.

Upper management, the manager and members must all be seen as acting fair.

* Write these items down on paper and publish for team use.
SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle. Ste. 212, Mt. View, CA. 94041 ©1984, 1988.

Getting Down To Work:

Team is working together more harmoniously, members have made commitment to make the team work, team is

getting support and interest from all members. Positive Efforts Are Experienced:

Team begins to be more efficient and precise, members contributions are discussed and measured, overall quality of

listening improves, members begin to respect other's contributions. Working methods evolve. More feedback is

evident and it is more objective.

Time, Resource And Energy Management:

More concern with economy of effort, task effectiveness, use of acronyms and more time spent reviewing team

Problem Solving Techniques:

Team handles problems more effectively, creatively, and

flexibly, and similar techniques are developed and used by all members. Individuals will bring various techniques and

share them with the team. HPT Development Takes Time:

Team members depth of understanding about each other takes time to develop. Members self-reinforce team norms and behavior.


Issues around "control" may still come up at times. Individual preoccupations may take away from team spirit, and team may accept minimal levels of team performance. Consistent problem solving skills need to be established and

objectives continually monitored.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212, Mt. View, CA. 94041 ©1984, 1988.


Socialization of Team:

Orchestrate social events away from work where team spirit can achieve greater depth.

Be honest and open. Trust must be maintained at all costs.

Keep integrity level high when the grapevine leaves members questioning what they heard.

Develop unique traditions and rituals specifically for the team.

Quality Control:

Involve all members in reporting how they each achieve high quality in their work and communications.

Be consistent with procedures. Have good, thought-out reason for change.

Be selective of new members. Quality, train and integrate new people within the team. Give thorough history.

Establish personal, team and corporate boundaries.

Go out of your way to create a positive, uplifting atmosphere.

Create an environment where members want to share leadership role, rewards, recognition and responsibility.

Raising The Ante:

Assess current progress and strategize, plan, and establish new and higher goals. Stretch (not stress) the teams abilities. Maintain a balance between technical, administrative and people skills.

* Write these items down on paper and publish for team use.
SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle. Ste. 212, Mt. View, CA. 94041 ©1984. 1988.

High Performance Communications:

Rapport and close friendships are developed between most members. Team identity is forged. Members show

willingness to go out of their way to help each other. Real enjoyment of teamwork is seen.

Individual Identity:

Informality between all members is based on a positive regard for each person's contribution to team purpose.

Other Teams:

Other teams inside the company see the teams bonding, yet will not feel ostracized. Many open links of communication

available to the rest of the company. Team watchful for

negative feedback. Boundaries healthy and well established. Links To The Organization:

Teams is clear about its connection and contribution to the rest of the organization. Members will be sure that the team's function does not become obscure.

How upper management and the rest of the company sees the team can vary from hour to hour. Need to keep aware of subtle messages. Is there value in what the team does? Has

bonding backfired? Has a member becomes ineffective or been inappropriate? Low motivation and boredom may set

in at this point. Members may see no future and ask to move on or suggest transfer.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212, Mt. View, CA. 94041 ©1984, 1988.


Keep Energy High:

Projects and/or products may be reaching their eleventh hour.

The high motivation may be lacking and members need an extra boost to complete details.

Increase social events to insure bonding and renewal of

original commitment. Members Form Natural Bonding:

Members will form natural bonds with certain small groups in team.

Try to keep the spirit of the whole team intact as

completion of a project or product come to a close or is handed off.

Keep An Ear To The Ground:
Listen to what the team is saying.

Listen to what the grapevine is transmitting.

What is the attitude of the team?

What are other teams close to yours saying?
* Are their new opportunities and projects beginning to

Support And Develop Family Atmosphere:

Openly discuss the future of the team.

Who's ready for a change and who would like to continue with the current members.

* Write these items down on paper and publish for team use.
SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212. Mt. View, CA. 94041 ©1984, 1988.

Looking Back:

This is a time to take a look back at the teams track record and assess the successes and failures. This could

be a time when projects, tasks or relationships are losing their zest. Reflecting back on the teams development and

productivity can give a renewed sense of pride and a sense that "the party is not over yet!". Renew the sense

of continuity and purpose. Individual Needs:

Members will be asking themselves "what's next?" Is it time for a career shift or should they stay where they are? Many variables to look at and analyzes. Most will not talk openly unless given permission to do so. Concerned with promotions and rewards.

New Directions:
* Members need to know what is available in-house -

projects, and opportunities for advancement. Transfer:

Is it possible to keep the developed team together?

rhflii^nge At Stage 5:
* Asking the question, "Is there a viable reason for keeping

the team together."

* Write these items down on paper and publish for team use.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle. Ste. 212, Mt. View, CA. 94041 ©1984. 1988.

MOVING ON TO STAGE What Do You Need To Do?:

The Team's Future

1. What new projects does the team have planned for the future?

2. What are all of the team's options for future projects?

3. What more information is needed to plan for the team's future?

The Member's Future

1. What promotions and rewards are available to outstanding team members?
2. What career development is available to support outstanding team members?

Forming a New Identity
1. Letting go of the past.
2. Seeing with a beginner's eye.

Using Tour Experience
1. Intuition about a new group.

2. Analyzing what is appropriate and what is not.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste, 212f Mt. Vicwt CA. 94041 ®1984, 1988.

Please return this questionnaire with the answer sheet to your manager as soon as possible.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212. Mt. View, CA. 94041 ©1984, 1988.




Write in the following space a precise definition of the team under review. Either write the names of all those included or a

designation that in unmistakable.

The team under review is:

Your Name:

You will find 108 statements listed on the following pages.

Work methodically through the questionnaire, answering each question. There may be times when you find it difficult to answer a particular

question but come to the best answer you can.
Remember that the quality of the result is directly related to your own

openness when answering the questions. This is not meant to be a scientific survey, but rather it serves as a tool to provoke thought and


Use the Team-Review Questionnaire Answer Sheet to respond to the statements.

Think about each statement in relation to vour identified team above.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212, Mt. View. CA. 94041 ©1984, 1988.




In the grid shown below there are 108 squares, each one numbered to correspond to the statements on the questionnaire.
If you think a statement is broadly true about your team, mark an X through the square. If you feel a statement is not broadly true, then leave the square blank.

Fill in the top line first, working from left to right; then fill in the second line, etc.

Be careful to respond to each statement, but mark an asterisk next to the numbers of statements that you find especially

significant or difficult to answer. These can be explored later. ANSWER GRID

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96

97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108

Totalsr% f N^v ^^ ^^^S

I n m IV V VI vn vm EX X XI xn

When you have responded to all 108 statements, total the number of Xfs in each column, write the total in the oval shown at the bottom of each column.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212, Mt. View. CA. 94041 ©1984, 1988.

Team-Review Questionnaire*

1. The team's manager and members spend little time in clarifying what they expect and need from one another.

2. The work of the team would improve if members upgraded their technical qualifications.

3. Most of the members feel that the aims of the team are hardly worthwhile.

4. People in this team often are not really frank and open with each other. 5. The objectives of our team are not really clear.
6. Team members are unsure about the team's contribution to the wider

7. We rarely achieve much progress in team meetings.

8. The objectives of some individual team members do not gel with those of other members.

9. When team members are criticized, they often feel that they have lost face.

10. New members often are just left to find their own place in the team.

11. Not many new ideas are generated by the team.

12. Conflicts between our team and other groups are quite common.

13. The team manager rarely tolerates leadership efforts by other team members.

14. Some team members are unable to handle the current requirements of their work.

15. Team members are not really committed to the success of the team.

16. In group discussion, team members often hide their real motives.

17. In practice, the team rarely achieves its objectives.

18. Our team's contribution is not clearly understood by other parts of the organization.

19. When the team is having a meeting, we do not listen to each other.

20. Team members are uncertain about their individual roles in relation to the team.

21. Members often restrain their critical remarks to avoid "rocking the boat."

22. The potential of some team members is not being developed. 23. Team members are wary about suggesting new ideas.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212, Mt. View, CA- 94041 €1984, 1988.

Team-Review Questionnaire'

24. Our team does not have constructive relationships with some of the other teams within the organization.

25. Team members are uncertain where they stand with the team manager.

26. Our mix of skills is inappropriate to the work we are doing.

27.1 do not feel a strong sense of belonging to the team.

28. It would be helpful if the team could have "clear-the-air" sessions more often.

29. In practice, low levels of achievement are accepted.

30. If the team were disbanded, the organization would not feel the loss.

31. The team meetings often seem to lack a methodical approach.

32. There is no regular review of individual objectives and priorities.

33. The team is not good at learning from its mistakes.

34. Team members tend not to show initiative in keeping up-to-date or in developing themselves.

35. We have the reputation of being stick-in-the-muds.

36. The team does not respond sufficiently to the needs of other teams in the organization.

37. The team manager gets little information about how the team sees his performance.

38. People outside the team consider us as unqualified to meet work requirements.

39.1 am not prepared to put myself out for the team.

40. Important issues often are "swept under the carpet" and not worked through.

41. Individuals are given few incentives to stretch themselves.

42. There is confusion between the work of this team and the work of others.

43. Team members rarely plan or prepare for meetings.

44. If team members are missing, their work just does not get done.

45. Attempts to review events critically are seen as negative and harmful.

46. Little time and effort is spent on individual development and training.

47. This team seldom innovates anything.
SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212, Mt. View, CA. 94041 01984, 1988.

Team-Review Questionnaire31

48. We do not actively seek to develop our working relationships with other teams.

49. The team would get better quality decisions if the team members took the initiative.

50. The team's total level of ability is too low.

51. Some team members find it difficult to commit themselves to doing the job well.

52. There is too much stress placed on conformity.

53. Energy is absorbed in unproductive ways and does not go into getting results.

54. The role of our team is not clearly identified within the organization.

55. The team does not set aside time to consider and review how it tackles problems.

56. Much improvement is needed in communication between team members.

57. We would benefit from an impartial assessment of how we work.

58. Most team members have been trained only in their technical discipline.

59. Good ideas seem to get lost.

60. Some significant mistakes would have been avoided if we had better communication with other teams.

61. The team manager often makes decisions without talking them through with the team.

62. We need an input of new knowledge and skills to make the team complete.

63.1 wish I could feel more motivated by working in this team.

64. Differences between team members rarely are properly worked through.

65. No time is devoted to questioning whether our efforts have been worthwhile.

66. We do not have an adequate way to establish our team's objectives and strategy.

67. We often seem to get bogged down when a difficult problem is being discussed in team meetings.

68. The team does not have adequate administrative resources and procedures.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212, Mt. View, CA. 94041 <S>1984, 1988.

Team-Review Questionnaire'

69. We lack the skills to review our effectiveness constructively.

70. The team does not take steps to develop its members.

71. New ideas from outside the team seldom are accepted.

72. In this organization, teams and departments tend to compete rather than collaborate.

73. The team manager does not adapt his style to changing circumstances.

74. New people coming into the team sometimes lack the necessary qualifications.

75. No one is trying hard to make this a winning team.

76. Individuals in this team do not really get to know each other as people.

77. We seem more concerned about giving a good appearance than achieving results.

78. The organization does not use the vision and skills that the team has to offer.

79. We have team meetings, but do not properly examine their purpose.

80. We function in rather a rigid manner and are not sufficiently flexible in using team resources.

81. Performance would improve if constructive criticism were encouraged.

82. Individuals who are retiring or uncertain often are overridden.

83. It would be fair to say that the team has little vision.

84. Some of the other teams/departments seem to have a low opinion of us.

85. The team manager is not sufficiently sensitive to the different needs of each member.

86. Some team members are not adapting to the needs of the team, despite efforts to help them.

87. If a team member gets into difficulties, he usually is left to cope with them by himself.

88. There are cliques and political maneuvering in the team.

89. Nothing that we do could be described as excellent.

90. The team's objectives have not been systematically related to the objectives of the whole organization.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212, Mt. View, CA. 94041 ©1984, 1988.

Team-Review Questionnaire31

91. Decisions made at meetings are not properly recorded or activated.

92. Team members could collaborate much more if they examined the possibilities of doing so on a person-by-person basis.

93. Little time is spent on reviewing what the team does, how it works, and how to improve it.

94. A person who questions the established practices in the team probably will be smartly put back in place.

95. Only a few members suggest new ideas.

96. We do not get to know the people working in other teams in the organization.

97.1 do not know whether our team is adequately represented at higher levels.

98. Some team members need considerable development to do their work effectively.

99. Team members are committed to individual goals at the expense of the team.

100. Disagreements between team members are seldom worked

through thoroughly and individual viewpoints are not fully heard.

101. We often fail to finish things satisfactorily.

102. We do not work within clear strategic guidelines.

103. Our meetings do not properly resolve all the issues that should be dealt with.

  1. We do not examine how the team spends its time and energy.
  2. We make resolutions but, basically, we don't learn from our mistakes.

106. Individuals are not encouraged to go outside the team to widen their personal knowledge and skills.

107. Creative ideas often are not followed through to definite action.

108. If we worked better with other teams, it would help us all to be more effective.

Reproduced from: Improving Work Groups

Dave Francis and Don Young
San Degio, CA.: University Associates, Inc. 1979

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212, Mt. View, CA. 94041 ®1984, 1988.

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SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212, Mt. View, CA. 94041 ©1984, 1988.


Team Characteristic Weakness

1 Inappropriate Leadership

H Unqualified Membership

HI Insufficient
Group Commitment

IV Unconstructive Climate

V Low Achievement Orientation

VI Undeveloped Corporate Role

VH Ineffective Work Methods

vm Inadequate Team Organization

IX Soft Critiquing

X Stunted Individual Development

XI Lack Of Creative Capacity

XII Negative Intergroup Relations

Tour Tour Team Team Score Ranking Average Ranking

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I Inappropriate Leadership
II Unqualified Membership
III Insufficient Group Commitment
IV Unconstructive Climate
V Low Achievement Orientation
VI Undeveloped Corporate Role
VII Ineffective Work Methods
VIII Inadequate Team Organization
IX Unfair Critiquing
X Unbalanced Individual Development XI Lack Of Creative Capacity
XII Negative Intergroup Relations


SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 10204 BYRNE AVE., CUPERTINO, CA. 95014 (408) 446-3361 ©1984. 1990.

I Appropriate Leadership II Suitable Membership III Team Commitment
IV Constructive Climate V Passion To Achieve

VI Clear Corporate Role
VII Effective Work Methods
vm Well-Organized Procedures IX Critique With Candor
X Well-Balanced Individuals
XI Abundance Of Creativity
XII Positive Intergroup Relations



Review Questions Team Totals

1 13 25 3749 6173 85 97

• Leadership is hard to identify, yet most clearly recognized in its absence.
• Power, though rarely used, is present and permanent.
• Leadership hierarchy is maintained partially by the language used to describe

peoples roles.
• To develop a team it is important for the leader not to hide behind the symbols of


The role of the leader is to develop an open approach to clarifying and working

through relevant issues with the team. Teams grow in stature and competence

through explicit and clear exploration of issues that effect their purpose. Differences and problems that face the team can become a source of strength if

dealt with in an openness and win-win attitude.

Setting a personal example is the best teaching methodology. Practicing rigorous honesty about his/her own limitations in technical, administrative and/or interpersonal skills will go a long way to communicate to the team an open policy. Team members are more concerned with their leaders behavior than with the words s/he utters.

Personal exposure and willingness to deal with uncomfortable issues is necessary. The release of energy and the greater depth of relationships that develops will more than repays for the discomfort.

There are important distinctions between the roles of a manager and leader. The team leadership function is not held irrevocably by one person. Well-developed teams with a sensitive knowledge of the strength of their members can rearrange their resources to suit the task at hand. Different people can come forward in their area of strength. This healthy process is often blocked by a well meaning team manager who hoards information, uses control to regulate behavior and maintain power.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 10204 BYRNE AVE,, CUPERTINO, CA. 95014 (408) 446-3361 ©1984, 1990.



Conventional Management Methods Say The: • Manager should make decisions
• Manager should exert control
• Manager should exercise discipline

New Team Manager/Leader Skills Most Needed In Team Development: • Linking together individuals who can contribute
• Bringing clarity to team objectives
• Building a climate that is both supportive and confrontive

• Ensuring that work methods are satisfying and effective
• Setting a climate within which relevant issues are always explored • Developing technical, administrative and people skills in members

V^l • Developing career tracks to test, stretch and evaluate top employees


A Successful Management Style Is:
• Natural to the person
• Appropriate to the task and the people
• Open, so that the real issues are confronted
• Affirmative, expressing an optimistic view of human nature
• Aware of employees feelings as well as words
• Always seeking new and practical methods of problem solving

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 10204 BYRNE AVE., CUPERTINO, CA. 95014 (408) 446-3361 ©1984, 1990.


Team leaders, like their teams, evolve over time and go through stages of growth.

• Influential in establishing patterns of relationship between members

• Encourage members toward more personal understanding of each other • Being supportive of the trust that develops between members

• Demonstrate to team members that dysfunctions and blockages need to be

worked through to clear resolutions
• Activity must match spoken intentions

• Being open and appropriate to situations without provoking wrath or scorn

• Skills and contributions required by team manager are:

- Being energetic
- Using team-development skills
- Being open and encouraging openness
- Aiding personal relationships
- Having consistent values and practice - BALANCE

• Leadership becomes more widely spread throughout the team

• Leadership process can become more innovative
• Nurturing of the increased ability of members to solve complex problems • Acknowledge resourcefulness and creativity of individuals and the team • Team manager becomes more involved with activities outside the team
• Main job of leader at this point is to aid the process of transforming a

group into a high-performance team

• Assess the past and put into an organized form

• Develop a reflecting process for team to contrast past with present and future • Renew sense of continuity and purpose through ritual
• Openly discuss career development and opportunities
• Question your existence

7, 8, 9, 10 SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 10204 BYRNE AVE., CUPERTINO, CA. 95014 (408) 446-3361 ©1984, 1990.


Review Questions 2 14 26 38 50 62 74 86 98 Team Totals

Ateamismorethananassemblyofindividualtalents, Thecapabilitiesofthe team members should balance each other.

It is risky to hire someone without the basic capabilities and skills required to fulfill a function of the team. Academic and technical qualification and verified

experience should be identified and use as criteria for selection.

Technical and professional skills can become obsolete. People forget knowledge seldom or never used. Previous training will gradually deteriorate if not a

priority on the job. New concepts, methods and applications need constant updating.

The team as a whole must have the right mix of talents, styles and experience.

Building in a proper amount of flexibility is essential. What is the spread of talent? How can each member be more involved with their area of enjoyment?

Individual members influence the team climate with qualities such as: Drive


Judgement Openness Strength

Teams need balance technically, administratively and emotionally.

11, 12, 13

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 10204 BYRNE AVE., CUPERTINO, CA. 95014 (408) 446-3361 ©1984. 1990.



Review Questions Team Totals

3 1527395163758799

• Teams require attention and time from its membership: Elements Of Sacrifice Loss Of Autonomy 4

And Self Interest Conflicts Arise

• "Growing commitment" is an important phase in the maturing process of a team. It is more of a feeling than a logical conclusion. ("I feel satisfied")

Test Of The Teams Commitment:
What is our level of enjoyment of each other?

Committed team members:
- Value the contributions of other members

- Express their good feelings openly
- Identify positive contributions
- Encourage creativity and good energy - Help members through difficulty
- Show that they care for the team
- Provide support and practical help

Be aware of the possibility that mutual support can lead a team to tolerate inadequate performance.


SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 10204 BYRNE AVE., CUPERTINO, CA. 95014 (408) 446-3361 ©1984, 1990.


Two Conditions For Increasing Team Commitment

Shared Goals:
• Team has shared its goals
• All members feel goals are achievable and meaningful
• Frustration and disillusionment are the consequences of failing to

ensure that action follows planning and commitment

Personal Warmth:
• High degree of interpersonal respect and understanding of:

- Quirks
- Strengths
- Weaknesses

• Shared understanding of how to use strengths and contributions
• Members not afraid to give and receive straight personal feedback • Feedback is intended to be supportive and helpful

Team needs to put aside time for commitment development.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 10204 BYRNE AVE., CUPERTINO, CA. 95014 (408) 446-3361 ©1984, 1990.

14, 15, 16, 17


Review Questions Team Totals

4 16284052647688100

• Informal rules quickly become established as the law by a group and set a climate for the work place.

• They are comprised of:

Traits Habits

Relationships Practices

Rules Beliefs Values


Group Characteristics

A Constructive Team Climate Has:
• Members that are skilled in interpersonal relationships

• Respect and warmth between members
• Support for their openness by those with power and influence.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 10204 BYRNE AVE., CUPERTINO, CA. 95014 (408) 446-3361 ©1984, 1990.


Creating An Open Climate

  • The degree of openness affects the team climate profoundly. Not all

climates support team development. It requires a climate where it is normal to air problems and matters of concern.

Openness has an impact on interpersonal relationships. We have all

learned to hide our feelings and thoughts. The team must give

permission to its members to take risks and make suggestions.
• A person, being wrong, should be supported and not made to look

-13Ce-do not punish error, we only punish the-suppres

Advantages Of Openness;
• Inner frustration is avoided

• Closer personal relationships are established
• Problems are clarified and can be dealt with aM^CUrA^

• Valid feedback is given, enabling others to learn and develop • Energy is released as issues become unblocked
• The stultifying side effects of bureaucracy are lessened

Disadvantages Of Openness
• The iindiiviiduall becomnes more specific and, therefore, is more

• Unsureness is exposed and can be interpreted as weakness

• Others may feel threatened by and become hostile towards individual

• Difficult-to-handle problems are brought into the open

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 10204 BYRNE AVE., CUPERTINO, CA 95014 (408) 446-3361 ©1984, 1990.


Understanding the Political Climate

  • Psychological games between people are a struggle for control and

reflect the individual's need to reinforce his/her theory of life.

The political game playing approach to team management prevents

the development of a constructive team climate.

Sample Games:
• Kick Me... • You're Fine Except For...

• If It Weren't For You... • Let Me Help You... • I've Got To Much To Do... • Yes, But...
• There Is No Way Out, So What Can I Do?...

Effective teams place a high value on authentic relationships. • Healthy confrontation

• Care for individual viewpoints • Listening skills

Test of good team climate: n
Capacity of team to-deat-wrth- interpersonal problems.


Identify where the disagreement or communication breakdown is 1. Illusion - no real conflict between members

2. Problem felt by one person

3. Problem felt equally by both

4. There is a basic belief and values difference - new information will not change matters.

Questions for individuals:
• How do I want the relationship to end up? ^W^^ttfe


• What specific behaviors are a problem for me?
• What effect does the behavior have on me? Wsr^ ^W> £ v~d^ *x
• What changes would I like to see? lW*o u*jvJ<0 2aH "W Af*Sl ~\
• Can I clearly state the problem and tell how I feel without blaming


the other person? (Person vs Behavior)
• If the other person becomes defensive, do I practice listening skills? (XuO £*^^ ***-,

• Do we negotiate "space" for ourselves, so that conflict of values have "ifcl\S/\/<-\ minimum impact?

18, 19, 20
SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 10204 BYRNE AVE., CUPERTINO, CA 95014 (408) 446-3361 ©1984, 1990.




Review Questions Team Totals

5 17294153657789101

* Teams exist to achieve results! Evaluations can be made on their ability to "deliver the goods/' or achieve tangible results.

• Effective Team Achievement requires:

- Clear objective that are shared by members. Objectives allow the members to focus their energy and supply a means of measurement.

- The team to clarify and validate these objectives with other teams and functions in the larger organization.

- That if a team fails to meet its objectives, they need to process the failure through critiquing. Critiquing can turn a failure into a development opportunity for the team.

- That during setbacks the team should be able to handle both practical

setbacks and the emotional side-effects of temporary failure. Use resilience and innovation to continue achievement despite difficulties.

- High standards of achievement. These standards are maintained

through team pressure, but with personal balance. - That the team define its own standards or norms.

- Achievement to be valued and rewarded within the team.

Avoiding empire building and the distribution of organizational resources on the basis of charisma or image rather than pragmatic


Keeping an eye on the "return on investment" when resources are used. Make a vigorous review of benefit versus criteria.

21, 22, 23

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 10204 BYRNE AVE., CUPERTINO, CA 95014 (408) 446-3361 ©1984, 1990.


Review Questions Team Totals

6 18304254667890102

• The lack of consistent policy and objectives from upper management can leave a team no other choice but to protect its members with negative

postures and attitudes

• If a team's contribution is going to be worthwhile, it must be relevant to the

objectives of the wider organization. Teams should invest regular time reviewing corporate objectives and the relevance of the teams objectives.

• Team Effectiveness Involves:

- Clarifying and negotiating a useful role in relation to the wider

- Crossing boundaries between teams to avoid insular and convoluted

• The manner and extent of organizational control is never a clear issue.

- Excessive Direction:

Alienates individuals
Work becomes boring and mechanical

Resistance movements spread

- Insufficient Direction:

Provoke indecision
Provoke energetic irrelevance

Fragmentation of direction Allows duplication & oversights

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 10204 BYRNE AVE., CUPERTINO, CA 95014 (408) 446-3361 ©1984, 1990.


• Teams need to know their contribution to the wider organization.
• Organizations need to know and value what each team contributes.

- How can the team fit into the organization as a whole?
- What contribution does the team make to the organizational system? - Are there sufficient mechanisms for clarifying the optimum roles for

the team?

• Organizations operate as systems.
- Interlocking and individual parts
- Effectiveness depends on each part interacting with others to produce

goods and services
- Core processes generate key outputs of the organization

- Supportive core processes
( ' - Clear understanding of core processes

• Insure that systems of value and judgements developed by teams are within the broad limits established by the organization as a whole.

• Questions to clarify functions -Who do we serve?

-Are we suppose to lead?
-Are we suppose to control?
-Are we suppose to provide a service?
-Are we suppose to intervene by right or request?

•These questions are clarified and defined from the top of the organization down. It requires skills of analysis, conducting reviews, and engaging subordinate teams to insure that the organizational and team goals harmonize as much as possible.

24, 25, 26

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 10204 BYRNE AVE., CUPERTINO, CA 95014 (408) 446-3361 ©1984, 1990.


Review Questions Team Totals

7 19314355677991103

• Much time and opportunity is wasted during ineffectual meetings.

• Team leaders and members need to learn how to use meetings

successfully and creatively in order to develop clarity , commitment, and high productivity.

• Meeting attendees should be clear about the purpose and goals of each meeting.

One person A small decides. group


The decision is made by
a majority.

The team The team discusses comes to a the problem unanimous and comes conclusion, to a con


Decision Making Styles

  • Going toward the right-hand end of the decision making continuum,

the degree of personal commitment shown by the team members increases markedly.

More team development is required to handle the added complexity of these team styles. The team manager's style is the key because moving to the right involves sharing influence with the team.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 10204 BYRNE AVE., CUPERTINO, CA 95014 (408) 446-3361 ©1984, 1990.



Listening Skills
• Listening is hard work and requires definite commitment and

personal discipline. A listener must deliberately prepare to listen. -Active Listening

-Unconditional Positive Regard
• Effective listening requires the listener to "have room" to attend to

• Members who give relaxed, open attention to others are rated as

effective listeners and have better recall.
• Active listeners signal their attention and availability both verbally

and nonverbally.
Active listening shows others that you respect and value their contribution.

Listening Techniques

• Checking
• Clarifying

• Showing Support
• Building On

• Structuring

Characteristics of Low Level Listening
• Dominance by a few members

• Cross Talk
• Ideas Lost
• Repetitive Contributions
• Wordy Inputs
• Turned-Off Members
• Inability to Handle Consensus Decision Making

\iyip '

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 10204 BYRNE AVE., CUPERTINO, CA 95014 (408) 446-3361 ©1984, 1990.


Problem Solving Cycle

• It is important for a team to adapt and modify a method of problem

solving to suit the methods, personalities, and context of the team. • The team will develop it's own unique approach.

Step 1: Objectives

• Arrive at a shared understanding of the task by identifying both the broad objectives — why the task is being undertaken — and also the specific objections — the concrete goals to be achieved.

Step 2: Success Criteria

• The team must ask the question, 'When do we know that we have

successfully completed the task?"
• Everyone must have a clear idea of the end performance.

Step 3: Information

The quality of the final outcome is a function of the ability of the team to weed out relevant information and organize all the data in a

comprehensible way.

There is both internal and external data, such as members personal facts, opinions, feelings, and ideas about their situation and the problem at hand.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 10204 BYRNE AVE., CUPERTINO, CA 95014 (408) 446-3361 ©1984, 1990.


Review Questions Team Totals

8 20324456688092 104

Role Identification

Members usually have one or several roles to perform and these roles affect others in the way they interrelate.

• Problems arise when individuals are unsure of their roles.

• What is expected of each member and his/her work must be checked out with the whole team to clarify any confusion and possible overlap.

• Teams must have regular reviews of the team's goals and individuals' objectives.

• Do not carry role identification to an extreme as the strength of a team relies on mutual support and interdependence.

• Team members need to identify their primary role and the parts of their

job that support other team players. - Define primary roles

- Define supporting roles
- Define ways in which members can learn by working with others,

i.e., job swapping and cross training

• When a change occurs in roles and team direction, do not forget essential support and administrative organization.

30, 31, 32, 33
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Review Questions Team Totals

CANDOR means:

9 21334557698193105

freedom from prejudice or malice; fairness; unreserved, honest or sincere expression.

There are a number of reasons why team members would withhold criticism or refuse to use free flowing analytical judgement and comment.

• Social and cultural norms
• The impostor phenomenon
• Don't want to upset or hurt others
• Lack skills of personal confrontation

Reviewing specific projects or routine work provides valuable feedback to team members. All levels of feedback from hallway comments, to formal team

review meetings, to yearly performance reviews are considered a form of critique. Three points need to be kept in mind:

1. Performance needs to be critiqued for both strengths and weaknesses

2. Keeping an open and balanced attitude
3. See negative comments as opportunities to grow

Teams evolve when members feel free to critique each other, and the decisions made by the team. When appropriate, the status quo must be questioned.

Positive Comments: Can lead members to unwarranted complacency.

Negative Comments: Can be interpreted as sabotage or self-centered.

"Old Timers" or senior members of a team may feel especially threatened. Their self-esteem is more at risk and their sense of ownership amplified.

There is a CHOICE. You can ADVANCE to growth, or RETREAT to security.

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Team members who choose to use critique in a constructive, career building

way, will acquire a valuable asset: The ability to advance and grow from error and inadequacy.

State your point simply and one

at a time.

Explore ideas and feelings in depth, and find concrete examples of your


Explore difficulties and their causes thoroughly, using a "What's Missing?" inquiry process.

Create a contract between members.

Stay in a mature adult mode. The "parent" in us can seem condescending.

Make it evident that you are willing to

spend time to process discussions around critical issues.

Find out why a person has a certain

point of view. Question their questions and give options.

Talking too much.

Jumping in and quickly quickly moving on.

Glossing over problems.

Raising false hopes.

Talking down to others.

Not taking the process seriously.

Displaying a negative and dis interested attitude.

Criticizing anothers judgement or skills.


SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 10204 BYRNE AVE., CUPERTINO, CA 95014 (408) 446-3361 ©1984, 1990.


State the truth. Only give commitment
if you are sure you can keep it. Set a time that makes sense to both parties.

Ask others whether you appear

inconsistent and when. Take action when appropriate.

Encourage other members to
state the problem and then examine

what's missing.

Set targets for learning rather than for discipline.

Be flexible and look carefully at

options, even if you decide to discard them later.


Making commitments to please others.

Being inconsistent.

Solving others' problems.

Using tasks, goals, objectives asweapons.

Seeing only your idea as valid.

Overall, the team benefits when a methodology is used to consistently and

honestly critique each others technical, administrative and interpersonal skills. Done with integrity, the team begins to develop cultural standards,

gain strength and release energy that is often blocked through inhibited expression and misunderstandings.

The concepts of responsibility and cooperation are extended into the work

environment. High anxiety, created by the unknown, becomes refocused each time team members choose to Critique With Candor.

1, 34, 35, 36

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ReviewQuestions 10 22 34 46 58 70 82 94 106 Team Totals

A team is effective through its capacity to harness and coordinate the

strengths of individuals. It follows that, other things being equal, the most capable teams are those with the highest level of individual talent

and ability.


It is important that new team members are introduced to the team with understanding and firmness.

• The new person should not get the feeling that they can coast

gently through the first few months.
• The team has to make it's expectations clear.

• Membership should be considered a privilege, not a right by association.

• There will be demands around the areas of performance. • The team is a vehicle of expression; both personally and



The strength of an individual is much more than dominance over a

person or subject. What may be observed as a strong characteristic by one person, may be seen as a failing by another.

People with well balanced individual strength have: • Energy

• Can speak from feelings and intellect equally
• Remain open to difficult questions with confidence • Will change perception or viewpoint through

reason, not subservience • Are prepared to take risks

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When strongly developed team members gather together, the team leader will have his/her own skills challenged. The leader must be aware of the effect each member has on the others. The ideal is a wide range of style difference, however, in the work place this is rarely achieved.

People vary in their capacity and possible contribution, but rarely is their potential fully realized. New challenges release energy and creative ideas

making members actively seek more responsibility. With greater and greater levels of responsibility, the team member becomes more resourceful and

develops a deeper sense of competence.

Individual development is difficult to describe because the processes are PERSONAL and the outcomes hard to measure. The developing team member


And with age:
• Discrimination grows

• Novelty diminishes
• The capacity to employ new insights can grow

The character of development changes over time, but the intensity of growth remains high for a well-balanced individual. After probing what s/he values and believes in, the well balanced team member may not see him/herself as a neatly symmetrical and ideal person, but, instead, accepts and allows expression of all that is genuinely there.


When team members:
• Know what they feel.

• Know what they want.
• Take definite and clear action to present their views, and • Make sure they are heard fully,

then they can be described as assertive and well balanced.

• Remain open
• Be enquiring
• Remain experimental

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These characteristics sound good, however, in the everyday work world there are usually enough snags to disrupt the most balanced team members

attempt to be clear and assertive.
Some of the BLOCKAGES are listed below:

• Family and cultural rules, standards and pressures • Being the victim - others have more rights
• Lack the ability to communicate your thoughts
• Avoiding disapproval or punishment from others

• Being cut-off or rejected while trying to be assertive

We only need, in order to recover, to understand the ways we were taught to react to assertiveness and identify the patterns that show up in our daily interactions.

Assertion is partly a matter of attitude and partly skill. Both can be improved through concerted effort on the team members part.

Assertive people are stronger resources for a team, and they feel better about themselves and their jobs. However, like all strengths, assertiveness can (and

will) be abused, and strongly developed individuals can place special strains on the team manager and the team as a whole.

A mature team will take care to develop the individual competence and

strength of each member. People feel the excitement that results from

personal development, and this energy feeds the team as a whole. The team becomes a vehicle for each member to express his/her creativity. This

• Developing a breath of technical skills

• Increasing personal effectiveness through assertion, and

• Having a more energetic, active and responsible attitude toward work and relationships.

37, 38, 39

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Review Questions 11 23 35 47 59 71 8 3 95 107 Team Totals

Much innovation comes from teams who have specific assignments to be creative in designing, developing, testing, marketing, and selling new ideas and products. There is much speculation as to where this "creativity" comes from. Some innovators report that "Everything suddenly clicked together." Others speak of "miracles." Still others say that there is nothing really "new." There are only new patterns of the same old things.

Research does indicate that creativity can be developed by "tuning in" to

aspects of ourselves that normally lay dormant in every day interactions. This creativity quotient is enhanced even more when the team member is

emotionally, physically and intellectually invested in the task.

Creativity Process:
• Identifing a need

• Perceiving the "missing link" • Generating seed ideas
• Developing a mature proposal • Testing the proposal

Risk cannot be eliminated from the creative, innovative process. The most highly trained and experienced team members take the risk

necessary in order to leap the chasm between the known and the unknown.

Intelligence is not measured by what you know, but by what you do when you don't know

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Common blockages to creativity for teams and team members can be summarized under the following headings:

• Easier to see in others than ourselves.

• Premature defining and judging of ideas and events based on habitual

• Attitudes harden with experience.

• Experiences influenced by own past beliefs and behaviors - experience

justifies an attitude, which provokes the new experience, which further demonstrate that the attitude is right.

• New ideas are often expressed unclearly, repetitively, inconsistently and

more complex than needed.
• Excitement of the new experience can act as a barrier to an effective

• Tendency to meet one's own needs for expression rather than that of the

- Attune yourself to the others experience level

- Time and place
- Receptivity of the other people
- Identify the purpose of the session - Be aware of the nonverbal language

• Much of the creativity seen today originates from people who perceive

that present systems, methods, products and services are missing their mark. From their critical assessment comes the energy to create the "new."

• Some of the reasons people become discontent are:
- Real open communication is difficult to practice
- Issues that seem unconstructive, improper and blocked take an

element of risk to bring up to others
- Negative concerns are seen as huge risks when attempts are made

to communicate this to bosses

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 10204 BYRNE AVE., CUPERTINO, CA 95014 (408) 446-3361 ©1984, 1990.



There is no best place to start being open with others. Choose one of the following and use it at the work place and in your personal life.

• Rather than listening to your own mind while listening to

another, listen to the sneaker with such openness that you can

repeat back verbatim what was said.
• Answer a question with a question that probes for more details.

Rather than giving answers, help the other person evolve an answer. • Suggest looking at what is "missing" in a problem, rather than

elaborate explanations of the problem.


• Mind Maps and Clustering Techniques • Why and How Charting


Support from the organization can be a valuable aid to high creative

output. To be effective, this support should have the following characteristics:

- The team member knows that others value their work. - Ideas, not the person, are critiqued and criticized.
- Difficulties are actively heard by colleagues.
- Adequate resources for testing are provided.

- The team member is not punished, condemned,

ostracized when a calculated risk has been taken and fails.

When an organization lends support to creativity, creative efforts can spread widely through a company.
Not all jobs have an equal opportunity for creativity, but all have a creative aspect.

40, 41, 42

• •

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 10204 BYRNE AVE., CUPERTINO, CA 95014 (408) 446-3361 ©1984, 1990.

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Review Questions Team Totals

12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108

• Teams usually have to relate to individuals and groups outside their own boundaries.

• We often watch groups developing impressions and images of each other that go beyond logical assessments.

- One group is called "slipshod" - Another is "arrogant"

- And the third group is called "weak"

• Industrial Psychologists who have observed this process of stereotyping

report that people tend to accept their stereotype as truth and act from this basis.

• Groups frequently engage in competition that is disguised. It is difficult

to detect, because of subtle undercurrents, expressed obliquely and

• When groups strive to win at the expense of the other group the results

are costly.

- Withdrawal of communication
- Withdrawal from close relationships - Downgrading of contributions

• Teams almost always are arranged in a hierarchy, and those that are

higher in the structure find it difficult to get clear and open communication from those below.

• Those below, the subordinate teams, may quickly learn to cover their tracks and defend their territory.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 10204 BYRNE AVE., CUPERTINO, CA 95014 (408) 446-3361 ©1984, 1990.



Developing Intergroup Relations
• A conscious effort by teams should be made to:

- Develop intergroup relations.
- In-depth communication.
- Work through overall objectives. - Daily routines.

• Improving intergroup relations requires conscious planning and creating opportunities that do not exist naturally in day to day organizational life.

The process for improving blocked intergroup relationships includes the following steps:

Stage 1. Identifying the Common Objectives
- Identify objectives and outputs from other teams within the organization. - Objectives should be explicit and worked through in detail.
- Become genuinely conscious of dependence on other groups.
- Share objectives, identify overlaps and differences between teams.

Stage 2. Personal Understanding
- There is no substitute for personal relationships between individuals in other

- Personal knowledge makes each individual more open, honest, and ready to

cooperate in decision making.
- Personal contact becomes more important whenever there is the possibility of

misunderstandings or conflicts.
- Members need to understand the motivation and driving forces of the members

of the other team.
- Information about who you are, how you work, and whether you actually do

what you say you will do.


SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 10204 BYRNE AVE., CUPERTINO, CA 95014 (408) 446-3361 ©1984, 1990.


Stage 3, Developing Mechanisms for Relationships

- Need mechanisms that enable high quality communication and interaction between different departments

- Need for mechanisms must be felt and resources allocated - Assess systematically the needs of each group involved

Stage 4. Managing the Boundary
- Select and brief individuals to be representatives

- Set up specific meetings with other departments

State 5. Building a Climate of Trust

- Disclose information about teams intentions and methods

- Trust is often built working through difficult situations together as each team has the opportunity to assess the other

- Teams need to expose both their strengths and weakness
- Be prepared to face difficult issues and work through them
- Be consistent and follow through on the actions agreed upon

Management teams often need clear signals from outside the group to let them know they are "on the right track". This applies most strongly to teams that

provide services to other parts of an organization.

Key Ideas • Organizations are living systems

• Whole systems are made up of interrelated parts

• Each part has a function that fulfills part of the total system

• If a part is defective it will have a damaging effect on the whole system

• To maintain a healthy system the boundaries that exist between it's parts

must remain open, allowing the exchange of signals and information between the parts

• If the boundaries are closed the whole system will degenerate

• Teams can become so fascinated by their internal functions that the state of their boundaries becomes a low priority

43, 44, 45, 46
SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 10204 BYRNE AVE., CUPERTINO, CA 95014 (408) 446-3361 ©1984, 1990.


Team Characteristic Weakness

I Inappropriate Leadership

II Unqualified Membership

in Insufficient
Group Commitment

IV Unconstructive Climate

V Low Achievement Orientation

VI Undeveloped Corporate Role

VH Ineffective Work Methods

vm Inadequate Team Organization ''

IX Soft Critiquing

X Stunted Individual Development

XI Lack Of Creative Capacity

XII Negative Intergroup Relations

Your Your Team Team Score Ranking Average Ranking


SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle, Ste. 212, Mt. View. CA 94041 ©1984, 1988.

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Francis, D., and Young, D. "Improving Work Groups: A Practical Manual For Team Building." University Associates Press, San

Deigo, CA., 1979.

Canter, L. "Assertive Discipline For Parents." Harper & Row, New York, 1982.

Gottlieb, L. and Hyatt, C. "When Smart People Fail." Simon & Schuster, New York, 1987.

Clance, P. R. "The Impostor Phenomenon." Peachtree Publishers, Georgia, 1985.

Adams, J. "Transforming Work." Miles River Press, Virginia, 1984.

Fulghum, R. "All I Really Need To Know I Learned In Kindergarten." Villard Books, New York, 1988.

Crum, T. "The Magic Of Conflict." Simon & Schuster, New York, 1987.

Campbell, J. "The Power Of Myth." Doubleday, New York, 1988.

Blanchard, K. and Peale, N. "The Power Of Ethical Management." Morrow, New York, 1988.

SCOTT TAYLOR ASSOCIATES 201 San Antonio Circle. Ste. 212, Mt. View. CA. 94041 ©1984. 1988.


Scott I. Taylor

Scott I. Taylor is Director of Executive Development Programs for The Ontara Group, a Human Performance Systems company.

Mr. Taylor, in 1984, founded The Taylored Image, of Los Altos, which coached more than 400 executives, managers and engineers on a one-on-one basis, from more than thirty companies. The objective was to accelerate the growth of high

potential employees to their next level of productivity in a short term, intensive

period and then provide long term on-call support for continued career success. The Taylored Image merged with Ontara on August 1,1987.

Mr. Taylor has been a speaker and workshop facilitator for tens of thousands of

people during the past seventeen years. He covers topics such as executive survival and success; managers as leaders; engineers as managers; balancing professional and

personal activities; quality of life; agendas behind conflict in the workplace;

presentation and image development from the inside out; handling failure, doubt and fear, and the application of General Systems theory in the business of management.

In the Cybernetic Systems Department at San Jose State University, Mr. Taylor

taught and developed core curricula. He co-chaired the University Faculty Development Committee and trained faculty from a wide variety of departments in application of cybernetics and participatory educational methods for the classroom.

Before his faculty position, Mr. Taylor earned a B.S. degree in Psychology and Communication Studies and an M.S. in a special major entitled Pedagogical

Cybernetics (SJSU) which combined psychology, education and cybernetic systems

disciplines. The objective was to research and document how people teach, learn and communicate, with a concentration on the emotional and cognitive processes of

the brain.

At the age of thirteen Mr. Taylor became a licensed amateur radio operator and later, after a year of college studying television and radio production methods, he

joined the Army in 1967 and completed electronics school. His first duty station was in Vietnam where he wrote and taught a 135 hour depot maintenance and repair

course in microwave theory used in combat communications equipment. Later, he

taught tactical communication skills to special teams for the Pentagon in Washington, D.C.

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